The country's history dates to the Stone Age, making Kenya one of the countries
in the world that possesses the largest and most complete record of man's cultural
development. This is partly because of the country's rich variety of environmental
factors conducive to human survival and development. According to archeological
finds in various parts of the country, the prehistoric period can best be described
under two categories; the Stone Age period which dates from about 2 million years
ago and Neolithic period from about 10,000 to 2000 years ago. Available evidence
indicates that man left behind traces of his occupation during the iron age through
the pre-colonial period and up to the present time. The phases of the various periods
are characterized by tools ranging from crude to advanced much smaller ones and
relevant to the respective lifestyles. The sites for the tools are widespread in
History is however not specific on the exact type of inhabitants who occupied Kenya
between this early period and the 19th century when the British colonized the country.
Islamic immigrants started setting at the coast during the 8th Century. Portuguese
followed and are among the first known European settlers along the coast. Up to
the 19th Century, very little was known of the Kenyan hinterland until the arrival
of the British who came and colonized Kenya.
The colonization process was met with resistance which was countered with excessive
force. Hence, most of Kenya's modern history is marked by rebellions against the
British, with the first one being in 1890 and the last one, known as Mau Mau rebellion
in 1952. The outbreak of the Mau Mau paved the way for constitutional reforms and
development in subsequent years. In 1955, a myriad of political parties were formed
all over the country after the colonial Government yielded to their formation. Elections
were held in March 1957, after which racial barriers in the Government began to
By 1960, LEGCO had an African majority. In 1960, Kenya African National
Union (KANU), which advocated for a unitary government was formed. In 1961, Kenya
African Democratic Union (KADU) which advocated a quasi-federal government (Majimbo)
was also formed. The first full franchise General Elections were held in May 1963
and KANU emerged the winner. In June 1963, Kenya attained internal self-government.
On December 12th of the same year, independence was achieved with a complex Majimbo
constitution which conceded much autonomy endence in 1964, Kenya became a Republic
with Mzee Jomo Kenyatta as the President. Following his death on August 22, 1978,
Hon. Daniel arap Moi assumed the Presidency in accordance with the Kenyan Constitution.
He ruled Kenya for 25 years. Following a general election held in 2002, Hon. Mwai
Kibaki, the third President of the Republic of Kenya took office on 30th December
Kenya lies across the equator on the East Coast of Africa. It borders Somalia, Ethiopia
and Sudan to the North, Uganda to the west, Tanzania to the South and the Indian
Ocean to the East. (see map)
Covers an area of 225, 000 sq miles (582, 646 sq km) approximately the size of Texas
Eight Provinces including the Nairobi area. Provinces are: Central, Coast, Eastern,
North Eastern Province, Rift Valley, Western and North Eastern. These provinces
are divided into administrative areas known as districts.
Pleasant and favourable with plenty of sunshine all year round. Rainfall is sometimes
heavy around April to May while some areas are more cloudy though without much rain
According to the national population and housing census report of August 1999, Kenya’s
population is estimated to be 28,808,658.
40 % Protestant, 30 % Roman Catholic, 6 % Muslim, 23% other religions.